vasaralla 'using a hammer' (instrumental meaning) or 'on a hammer' (locative meaning). "Pričali smo sa svima" - "We talked with everyone", "Došao je s roditeljima" - "He came with his parents", "Šetala se sa psom" - "She was taking a walk with her dog". English, as an Indo-European Language, comes from an original language with eight distinct cases: Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Associative-Instrumental, Ablative, Accusative, Locative, and Vocative.There is a vestige of the "Associative-Instrumental" case in the frozen idiom "the more the merrier." - Ночами она читала всё, что попадалось под руку. The nominative Baham changes its ending to become Bahamitsa: DESHPANDE, Madhav; "Samskrita-Subodhini", 2007. It can indicate the agent of a passive verb: It can indicate the cause, reason or circumstance of an action. Maia Nikitina is a writer and Russian language translator. (ya lyuBLYU risaVAT' akvaRYELnymi KRASkami)- I like to paint with watercolor paints. The New Penguin Russian Course: A Complete Course for Beginners - Probably the best course in a book. In this case, it can be translated as "because of", "out of", etc. For example, the sentence "я работаю утром" (ja rabotaju utrom) means "I work in the morning". This function is used with a number of verbs that contain some kind of information on owning or managing the noun. It can indicate the instrument (of an action): It can be used to indicate someone or something accompanying an action. In most declension paradigms, the instrumental case in Russian can generally be distinguished by the -ом ("-om") suffix for most masculine and neuter nouns, the -ою/-oй ("-oju"/"-oj") suffix for most feminine nouns and -ами ("-ami") for any of the three genders in the plural. Use the instrumental case when something is made or done by someone (agent). In Classical Greek, for example, the dative case is used as the instrumental case. *the German dative -e is not used in any common conversation; it is only implented here for a better demonstration. The functions of the Proto-Indo-European instrumental case were taken over by the dative, so that the Greek dative has functions belonging to the Proto-Indo-European dative, instrumental, and locative. Вами - You (plural) Ими - Them. In this case, the sense of "company" is indicated by postpositions like सह. Note that the nouns are always in plural when used this way. Finnish has a historic, marginal instructive case (-n), but in practice the adessive case (-lla/-llä) is used instead outside lexicalised fixed expressions, even though the adessive literally means 'on top', e.g. In Modern English, the word why is one instance of an etymologically instrumental declension. The modern instrumental case (as present in why) does not bear the meaning of instrument, but of purpose, cause, or reason: rather, the closely related form how is used to express instrument, way, or means. For example, in the sentence ātlān ācaltica in huāllahqueh 'they came on the water by boat', ācalli means 'boat' and ācaltica means 'by (use of a) boat'. (Vasaroin 'using hammers' is plausible and understandable, but not common in use.). An instrumental/comitative case is arguably present in Turkish as well as in Tamil. Also, Uralic languages reuse the adessive case where available, locative case if not, to mark the same category, or comitative case (Estonian). (on POOley VYletel iz kabiNYEta i pabyeZHAL pa kariDOroo)- He ran out of the office like a bullet and ran down the corridor. This function is often used in established idioms but can be also seen in new phrases where the noun that is being declined in the instrumental case is used as a simile. She holds a Diploma in Translation (IoLet Level 7) from the Chartered Institute of Linguists. (vremeNAmi on savSYEM zabyVAL a svaYOM neSHASnam palaZHEniye)- At times he completely forgot about his miserable situation. It can also be used to show how long or when in a larger scope of time something happened: "Nema ih godinama" - "They haven't come in years", "S vremenom će proći" - "It will pass in time", "Jednom tjednom" - "Once a week", etc. This function is often used in established idioms but can be also seen in new phrases where the noun that is being declined in the instrumental case is used as a simile. Michigan Papers on South and Southwest Asia, No. - Они долго шли полями. the agent in a passive voice construction. (John [nominative] wrote with a [dative] pencil [dative].). Ей - Her. The original Proto-Turkic instrumental case suffix was -n, which is less productive today but is preserved in common words like yazın ("during the summer"), kışın ("during the winter"), öğlen ("at noon"), and yayan ("by foot", "on foot"). In this sense, the instrumental case is used to mark the person that was caused to execute the action expressed by the verb. This is one of the most common roles of the instrumental case and can be used with singular nouns depicting a single moment in time, such as "in the morning" or "late Sunday afternoon," as well as with plural nouns that describe a lasting and repeating action in time. For example, ipso facto can be translated as "by the fact itself", while oculīs vidēre means "to see with one's eyes". - Он пулей вылетел из кабинета и побежал по коридору. 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